Sunday, February 23, 2020

The Philosophical Foundations of the American Criminal Justice System Research Paper

The Philosophical Foundations of the American Criminal Justice System - Research Paper Example Some years after the independence before the alteration of its constitution, the courts were using a replica of the Great Britain courts. One reason that prompted a change in the constitution was that the British law did not offer equal justice and was favoring the English. Among the amendments that were made in the constitution was provision of due process that still exists in current U.S constitution that suspect possesses the right to be informed of accusations brought against him before appearing on the court and prepare for appropriate defense. The American police are responsible in the attainment of goals of the American criminal justice. They do this by arresting crime suspects, investigating crime, as well as facilitating correction. The American law enforcement is no exception of what America inherited from the Great Britain. Retribution is a method of punishment. Correction aims at reforming criminals and reshaping them to fit in the society. Yet again, it is important to remember that The American criminal Justice System borrows heavily from the Great Britain this notion of correction. Rehabilitation can be discussed under correction; however, it is far much better and humane form of punishment. As opposed to correction, which is a vindictive approach to crime, rehabilitation seeks to help convicted criminals to conform, embrace good moral behavior, and become useful members of the society. While The American criminal Justice has aims and principles that govern its operations, it is also founded on a philosophy.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Holistic approach to health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Holistic approach to health - Essay Example The use of complementary therapies and CAM widely based in specific disease entities such as cancer, cystic fibrosis and asthma, in clinical settings such as obstetrical care and paediatric oncology and by international geographic locations (Yeh et al. 2000; 56). The concept of holism, which is an appreciation of the inter-relationship between body, mind and spirit, and recognition of the socio-cultural factors are fundamental to complementary therapies and medicine (Tiran 2006; 341). A number of definitions for complementary therapies and medicine have been proposed by different researchers. One of the definitions given is a broad domain of healing resource that encompasses health systems, modalities and practices and their accompany theories and beliefs, other than those intrinsic to the dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period (Snyder and Lindquist 2001; 6). According to Uzun and Tan (2004; 239), complementary therapy is defined as therapy used in conjunction with conventional therapy. Existing studies on complementary therapies and medicine focus mainly on two things. One is the focus on the specific mechanisms of actions such as particular herbal remedies, homeopathic medicines and essential oils, often with regard to assessing their safety and efficacy; the other one is focusing on specific therapies and medicine modalities such as herbal medicine, homeopathy and aromatherapy, as if they are stable or not, uniform and constant forms of health care practice (Williams 2000; 163). There is a steady increase in the use of complementary therapies and CAM by the general public in the last two decades (Ernst and White 2000: 32). This is parallel to their increased used in health care settings, including the UK NHS (Richardson 2001). In 1998, only 10% from 22 million visits to

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

John Locke vs. Thomas Hobbes Essay Example for Free

John Locke vs. Thomas Hobbes Essay During the seventeenth century, Great Britain produced Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, two of the greatest political philosophers of all times. Both men are known for their great philosophical ideas that help to explain the role of government in man’s life. Their explanations are based on the description of their understanding of man’s state of nature. While both men do have opposite views on many of their political arguments, the fact that they are able to structure the essence of their conflicting ideologies in to the shell of what they define as the state of man in nature, is the link that relates them to each other. Both man share there desire in an establishment that provides order to ensure not only the protection of the individual, but also the security of the state. In Hobbes philosophy, the state of nature is a very unwelcoming, dull place. His theory is that individuals in their true nature are guided by their innate primal, animalistic instincts, rather then reason. Hobbes’ concept of the state of nature is based on his believe that morality such as the ideas of good and evil do not exist in tis state. He claims that with out guidance, man will use any power at his deposal, to defend his life and positions. In his book Leviathan, Hobbes describes this condition as war, in other words, it is every one against every one. (Hobbes) In addition, he depicted the state of nature as a state in which individuals are without any of the benefits that are taken for granted in modern society. Hobbes describes the lack of these benefits as: â€Å"No commerce, no agriculture, no account of time, no arts, no letters, and no society. (Hobbes)† Hobbes believes that without proper structure, man is in constant state of war. A state where an overbearing sense of fear and grief, triggers men to be on a constant defense in order to protect themselves, and their belongings. Hobbes relates man’s desire to escape from the state of nature and war by seeking peace, which allows man to end his unremitting feeling of fear. In order to obtain peace, Hobbes claims that it is the use of reason that enables man to respond the laws of nature. It is through reason, that man transfers all rights to a higher power, according to Hobbes, which in turn allows man to receive man’s natural right to all things, providing that others will do the same. Hobbes labeled this mutual transferring of rights contract. Hobbes knew, however, that there has to be some collective authority in place to enforce the laws. He believed that human’s appetite for power would be a constant threat to the contract. To prevent this threat, Hobbes saw a necessity for government. He concluded that there aught to be some sovereign authority that could enforce laws and would be authorized to punish anyone who broke the rules; an authority that is endowed with the responsibility to uphold the rights of every individual, as a part of the social contract. Hobbes believed that the best form of government to fulfill this role is in form of an absolute monarch as ruler over the people. He named the role of the absolute sovereign Leviathan. The role of the monarchic ruler was to be successful because it helped to create a endless circle that reinforced the social contract. The sovereign was to control the masses through fear, as he had the power of the threat of punishment bestowed upon him. This power helped to reinforce the mandates that the laws of nature provided, thereby ensuring the continued operation of the social contract that was in place. In turn for turning the responsibility to protect and serve over to the ruler, the people essentially gave up all of their own personal rights to govern themselves to the sovereign. The concept was that people are able to maintain their right to self-preservation by granting the sovereign all of their other rights. Hobbes titled this idea of a system of sovereignty the Commonwealth. It is through this social contract that is upheld between the people and the sovereign in the commonwealth, Hobbes states, that â€Å"man is able to get out of the state of nature and into society. (Hobbes)† Being a philosopher of political theory in the seventeenth century, John Locke understood and believed in the social contract and the state of nature as much as Hobbes. The positions he took on them, however, were most of the time on the polar opposites of the spectrum. Locks interpretation of the state of nature becomes evident in his publication Two Treaties of Government, where he states, â€Å"while there were no civil societies yet formed, people basically were able to live in peace, because the natural laws that governed them were an innate quality which everyone had. (Locke)† In other words, is Locke’s believe that in the state of nature, all people are equal, and have executive power of the natural laws. One of the major clashes between Locke’s and Hobbes’ theories was the interpretation of the state of nature. Hobbes was a firm believer in the state of â€Å"war† as a natural part of the state of nature. Locke on the other hand, alleged himself with the thought that the two states were not the same. Locke’s philosophy states that the human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance. He believed that in the state of nature all men where equal and independent. Further more Locke believed that it is every ons right to protect his rights of life liberty and property. He states that people govern to govern their lives by using reason, and do not need a common superior, or leader. The state of war occurs when people try to force things on others, and it was Locke’s belief that when this occurs, people have the right to wage war because force without right is an adequate basis for the state of war. In order to transition from the state of nature into a civil society, Locke believed that people would innately want to give up their natural freedom in order to assure protection for their lives, liberties, and property. Locke claimed that the most efficient form of government for a civil society would be one that is run by the majority of people with common views, and that the individual, when entering into this society would submit to the will of the majority and follow the rules set forth by it. In transitioning from the state of nature to a civil society, Locke stated that the state of nature differed from a civil society because it lacked â€Å"an established, settled, known law; a known, and different judge; and power to back and support the sentence†. In order to complete this transition into a civilized society, the individual has to relinquish certain natural rights. These rights include the right to do what they wanted within the bounds of the laws of nature, and the power to punish the crimes committed against natural law. Both rights are given up in order to put oneself under the protection of the executive power of the civil society. According to Locke, it is a transfer of these rights to the civil society. Lock states that there will be â€Å"a law, a judge, and [an] executive working to no other end, but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. † Locke’s ideals were considered to be very progressive at the time of their creation and based on the principles of equality and government working to the advantages of the people. After entering into a civil society, Locke stated that the government of the commonwealth, using the element of a majority, should have a single legislative body that was used for the creation of laws. Locke suggests many types of governments such as Democracy, or Oligarchy, but he never states that one is better then the other. This again is another difference in the views between Locke and Hobbes. While Hobbes favored one single person to have the divine power to rule, Locke stated that the power to create law should rest within a majority legislative body and that the law created by it should be absolute. No other body could create laws of its own, and every member of society and the commonwealth must abide by the laws that were created by the legislative majority. While the legislation is an absolute governing body, it does in fact have limits as well. Locke states that the legislative body must govern by fixed laws that apply equally to everyone, and that the laws that are designed are to be done solely for the good of the people; lastly, the legislative body cannot increase taxes on property owners with out the people’s consent. John Locke and Thomas Hobbes ideas about common law governments help to explain, at least from a philosophical ideal, the evolution of man from the animal age to the enlightened seventeenth century in which they resided in. While I believe the critical difference between their views is the amount of power they each placed in the idea of a sovereign power, they also shared many other different ideals, such as the state of nature in which people resided, and their ideas of how people living in the commonwealth should relinquish their rights. However, one crucial element of commonality should be noted that existed between Locke and Hobbes. Even though many of their ideals differed their end result was the same; the common good of the people. Though they both may differ on how this plan works, they are able to base at the crux of each of their arguments, the essential need for reason in man’s life, and how we as a race are able to better ourselves through the tools of reason and government. Work cited: Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. first edition . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. Print. Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government . 22/04/2003: n. pag. Web. 18 May 2011. http://epublish. biz/pdf/Two_Treatises_of_Government. pdf.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Performance Practice of Baroque Vocal Technique Essay -- Music Voice M

Performance Practice of Baroque Vocal Technique When approaching a performance, accomplished musicians often consider the historical context from which a piece originates. They most often think of such considerations in the application of that context as it pertains to early music that is, the Baroque era or earlier. For any era, such historical considerations are called performance practice, and may include the use of vibrato, ornamentation, dynamic levels, tempi, instrumental timbres, performance setting, and balance. Vibrato and ornamentation are two important areas of consideration that vocalists must explore when aiming to give an authentically Baroque performance. 'Ideal' Baroque Vocal Technique: The Assumed Ideas Over the past several years, some amateur musicians have developed specific ideas about 'correct' performance practice of Baroque music. In an essay concerning the issues of Baroque music performance, Michael Sartorius notes that: performance to a major degree reflects the spirit of the times, and some of today's 'authentic' performances have less to do with historical accuracy, attempting rather to produce a performance which, in John Eliot Gardiner's words, will 'excite modern listeners.' (Sartorius) As a result, audiences today want a sound that contrasts with the full, constant vibrato used in singing today, such as is found in straight-tone singing, and a sound that contrasts with twentieth century minimalism, such as is found in ornamented melodies. Amateur voice teachers, amateur singers, and amateur listeners often associate straight-tone singing with correct Baroque performance practice (Almirena). This idea is probably an outgrowth of the way scholars understand correct d... ..., Barbara [Valler, Barbara]." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. 2001. Roseman, Ronald. "Baroque Ornamentation." The Journal of the International Double Reed Society Number 3. 1975. IDRS. [17 October 2003] . Sartorius, Michael. Baroque Music Perormance: "Authentic" or "Traditional": A discussion of the essential issues involved. Ed. Micahel Sartorius. n.dat. Baroque Music Pages. [17 October 2003] . Seaton, Douglass. Ideas and Styles in the Western Musical Tradition. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1991. 153. Strozzi, Barbara. Cantate, ariete a una, doce, e tre voci, Opus 3. Ed. Gail Archer. In Recent Researches in the Music of the Baroque Era. vol. 83. Ed. Christoph Wolff. Madisono: A-R Editions, Inc., 1997. Wulstan, David. Tudor Music. University of Iowa Press, 1986. 174-180. Classical Vocal Techniqe. .

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Brother Keepers

The purpose of this program is to feed the homeless on Skid Row, many of which are mentally ill or substance abusers. The two evenings are Mondays and Wednesdays at St. Bede Church located at 215 Foothill Bled, in La Canada, 91011. A second location which meets on Tuesday is St. James Church at 4625 Duunsmore Ave. , La Crescenta, 91214 A third location which meets on Thursday evenings is Holy Redeemer Church at 2411 Montrose Ave, Montrose 91020. I arrived at 4 pm to assist the staff with preparing meals, homeless shelter, and distribute the food.I also stayed with the staff at all times while in Skid Row. Feeding the homeless is an exciting experience. At all locations, the experiences are not inherently different as similar participants were attended and their needs met. The beauty of the program is that it addressed the three basic needs of man: food, clothing and shelter. These needs are universal and when people are involved in meetings, recipients of such gesture are eternally g rateful. This is what happened during the program.While serving the people with food at the church, these people found a comfortable place to rest and to be fed. I found the experience to be an eye-opener to the challenges that people face in life; it opened my eyes to understand what it really means to homeless and steps to help people in such circumstance. The population served was basically homeless who lived on Skid Row without any comfortable shelter. Some of them used the opportunity to narrate how they resorted to the Row for shelter, how they lost their jobs, the meaning of life and later eventually became homeless.Others talk about the inhuman treatment they had in their hostile homes which drove them to abuse substance, and the series of events which culminated in their ejection from their homes. Because of their experiences have become mentally ill sequel to inability to adjust to the stressful life events they had passed through, they have begun to abuse drugs and substa nces such as alcohol, cigarette, cannabis, marijuana, amphetamines and other stimulants. They said the latter keeps them off their problems and gives them temporary relief from the horrible conditions where they reside.They were receptive of the gesture and received it with gladness, as they expressed their appreciation without hesitation. These people need our people; they are wonderful. There are ethical, psychological, spiritual, cultural, legal and economic principles related to the homeless population living in Los Angeles. It is noteworthy to state that giving money to the homeless will not help solve their inherent problem. It is better to adopt a holistic approach where the underlying psychological or psychiatric problem is duly addressed. This is where the spiritual houses like churches have become useful, as in this program.The feeding took place in churches. These houses still provide a place of comfort for the less disadvantaged and homeless in the society. A combination of spiritual help with government intervention can help alleviate the challenges of homelessness. Such government interventions will include provision of housing facilities at affordable prices. A social welfare provision is also encouraged but it must be meant for citizens who have no or limited means to help them. Substance abuse is a common psychiatric problem amongst the homeless. There is also increased risk of depression and suicides.Besides, sexual promiscuity is on the high side there as social disinhibition is out of place. Besides, community acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis are also prevalent among people living on the streets because they live in overcrowded places. Diarrheal diseases are also common. The staffs at Brothers Helpers demonstrate professionalism in dealing with the homeless: they exude confidence while they deal nicely with these needy people. They show understanding of the conditions of this set of people, and are really compassionate. I am glad I had s uch an experience: I realize that to make others happy is the key to fulfillment in life

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Fossil Fuel Consumption, Co2 And Its Impact On Global...

Fossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 and Its Impact on Global Climate Background: At the beginning of human history, we had to satisfy our energy needs (for food, heat and movement) by using our own muscle power and gathering or hunting naturally available plants, animals and wood. Each stage in the evolution of human society (the development of farming, domestication of animals, harnessing of wind and water power) increased the average per capita energy use, but it was the Industrial Revolution and the exploitation of fossil fuels which marked the transformation of societies into the energy-intensive economies of today. Since the eighteenth century the industrialising countries have come to rely on non-renewable energy resources, and at†¦show more content†¦We have greenhouse effect because some trace components of our atmosphere re-absorb and retain certain wavelengths of heat radiated from the Earths surface, and the burning of fossil fuels have increased the tropospheric concentration of all of these compounds, especially carbon dioxide # (CO2). The Greenhouse Gas  ¾ CO2: A Product of Fossil Fuel Consumption: Pollution of the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels has many effects. Perhaps the best know are modifications that have led to changes in carbon dioxide. In some ways carbon dioxide cannot be classified as an air pollutant as it is reasonably abundant in the natural atmosphere (0.03%), and it is a basic product of all fossil fuel consumption. Although the chemical reaction in combustion of fossil fuels is not always simple, it can be summarised as the release of the carbon combined with atmospheric oxygen atoms to form carbon dioxide. This process is often referred as respiration, such that: C6H12O6 + 6O2 + heat  ® 6CO2 + 6H2O Here, we see that carbon dioxide is not an impurity, as a matter of fact, life on the earth is somehow depending on this gas, either directly through photosynthesis (plants) or indirectly via the food-chain (animals). Nevertheless, this gas plays an important role in the heat balance of the earth, because of its distinctive heat-storage properties. We often refer carbonShow MoreRelatedBiomass Essay1094 Words   |  5 Pagesthe consumption of conventional energy fossil fuels. 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With the increase in population size, the increase in consumption, and the earth remaining theRead MoreHuman Behavior and Activities Responsible for Global Climatic Changes1677 Words   |  7 PagesRUNNING HEAD: Global Climatic Changes Global Climatic Changes Student Name University Name Abstract This paper analyses the human activities that lead towards global climatic changes. It establishes the thought that human behavior and activities that are the major cause of global climatic changes, therefore, human beings shall alter their lifestyles in order to put a stop at the global climatic changes. Global Climatic Changes Introduction Global climatic change can be defined as a long

Friday, December 27, 2019

Lack Of Sexual And Sexual Abuse - 890 Words

Lack of sexual wants in some guys and ladies is a major marital hindrance in this day and age and some of the foremost threats to trendy existence s marriages. The incapability of men and females to perform satisfactorily for the period of sexual intercourse is a subject any person that cherishes his or her marriage should no longer toy with. It s a situation of weak erection, loss of sexual wish, untimely ejaculation, lack of sensation during intercourse, shrinking penis in guys etc. As mentioned in lots of circumstances of sexual dysfunctions, susceptible erection is also one of the most issues associated with our present day culture. Stress is number one risk to human wellbeing at present. An excessive amount of thinking, too much†¦show more content†¦Using detailed medicines similar to the ones which can be used for the remedy of serious physique ailments like diabetes, mental ailment, hypertension, and others additionally intrude with the sexual performance of a man or woman likewise alcohol, hard drugs and cigarettes influence human sexual drives Lack of sexual force is dangerous for any character. This is for the reason that intercourse is a primary side of marriage. Women love guys who could make them think like a lady, guys that can heat their mattress correctly, guys that can make them reach orgasm at each sexual activity, no longer the one that will do it once in a whilst or ejaculate within 2 or three minutes of intercourse action when they are just developing. How then, can the crisis of low libido and weak sexual vigor can first-class be managed? The next recommendations shall be of aid to anyone experiencing low libido and weak sexual vigor. You will be surprised at how useful they will be too. Unfortunately, there is little one can do to support anyone who is on remedy for diabetes and hypertension among others. Such guys will have to wait till they conclude their drugs. But if you are now not on such medicines are attempting the out following pointers below. 1. Watch what you eat. That is very most important if you are experiencing low libido or susceptible sexual energy. Reduce the cost at which you eat sugar and junk food substances day-to-day and in case you